Economic giants: trusts, monopolies, and corporations
Local to national level issues- –led to growth of public/government programs
Migration from rural to urban cities.
Growth of public/government assistance – due to rapid change (growth of industrialization( move from the home to impersonal setting of the factory – reliance on wage labor), a market economy (supply and demand), immigration (both southern and eastern Europe, along with rural to urban).
Time of economic growth due to technological advances
Increase in wealth for those that were wealthy- working class were in extreme poverty, middle- class was just making enough to support themselves but had little to spare and dissatisfied because it could not keep pace with rising cost of standard of living
Recognition and establishment of a minimum wage
MATERNALISM– platform for reform- women’s issue– child and womens labor– maternal and infant health. Reform that focused on traditional womens roles. Views of the importance of mothers and children within the home. SHEPHARD-TOWNER BILL (PREVENTATIVE MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH EDUCATION) –FIRST FEDERAL GRANTS IN AID TO THE STATES FOR A WELFARE PROGRAM OTHER THEN EDUCATION
VIEWS OF CHILDREN:
Children were recognized as needing to be children.
1909 Conference on Dependant children-emphasizing the p. 215
1912 childrens bureau- Julia Lathrop (social worker- hull house resident) appointed to head the bureau—responsible for looking at the state of children in the US.- investigating and reporting on child welfare and child life RESEARCH AGENCY
Child Welfare League of America
Juvenile Court Movement- separating from adult population- considered to be a special population
Mothers pension-(SPECIFIC TO WIDOWS- NO FAULT OF THEIR OWN) predecessor to Aid to Women and Children—
OLD-AGE PENSION LAWS (STATE LEVEL)
Settlement House Movement:
Settlement House Movement- SOCIAL CHANGE–Residence, Research and REFORM – 3 R’s. stressed the interdependence of social groups (and the state) in an organically structured society- BECAME SOCIAL CENTERS WITHIN NEIGHBORHOODS
*bridged the gap between classes – moving higher class status into the poor neighborhoods
*creation of kindergarten to build rapport with neighbors, est. nurseries and day care centers to assist working mothers. Mens’ clubs, courses in art and crafts, libraries, gymnasiums, penny saving banks, employment bureaus, kitchens, music halls with orchestras, art galleries, dispensing low cost medicines could be purchased—some est. visiting nurses programs.
Inivisibility of the poor- wrote articles, did speeches and books of the conditions of the poor. Focus on political and social advocacy—key members to establish
Increase of schools of social work- move towards professionalism. Casework was the skilled professional—but recognition of the social change as important aspect of profession. Split off into separate professional organizations. Columbia School of Social Work first social work school. Mary Richmond. University of Chicago schools of social work- focus on
Foundations of social work came from social science theory and research. sociology/anthropology/economics/justice/psychological theories. Human beings and their social relationship. Practical experience essential from the start