Chapter 4- The Civil War and After: 1860-1900
Social work focus: individual change over social reform ; distrust of the competence of the poor; preference for voluntary over govt action
War created prosperity for the North- boom in industrialization and the railroad allowed for the growth of individual wealth and creation of corporations
Devastation for the south- devastated land, property etc, decline in plantation system led decentralization of land ownership. Struggle to find employment—started industrialization but also created tenant farming.
Growth and expansion to the West- railroad created towns that became centers for agricultural development
Continued decimation of native American tribes– by 1890 all Native American nations had been conquered and within 3 centuries native American population reduced by 90%. Widespread poverty and the forced assimilation of native people, creation of boarding schools loss of culture, language and tradition.
Immigration increase of southern and eastern Europeans– even more different and foreign fueled racism. Asian population especially the Chinese were in an even lower order- the Naturalization Act of 1870 limited to white and persons of African decent. Native americans and Asians unable to get citizenship, considered aliens. — Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 excluded all Chinese immigrants of laborers from 10 years then permanently.
Veterans and families social welfare increased assistance—developed the pension for soldiers enlisted for 90 days and creation of sanitary commission specific to caring for the needs of Union veterans. Confederate soldiers received less assistance, did not qualify for federal assistance only at their own state level did they receive pensions. Not in any way close to the Union amounts.
The Black Codes– laws that denied freed blacks certain rights. Limited property rights, forbade working as artisans and mechanics, and specified kinds of work blacks could do.— went back to Poor Law state and Georgia wants to put those in “idleness” on chain gangs and force to work. Black children forced to dependency—all those under 18 made available for apprencticing (former masters given preference)
Freedmans Bureau (1865-1872)- first federal govt program established to assist freed slaves. But assisted both poor blacks and whites. Organized freed blacks into the labor force, assisted with contracts between blacks and whites. Provided transportation home and aided in reuiniting families, rations, build schools and hospitals.
But whites resorted to violence to deal with race, establishment of KKK and “night riders” terrorized African Americans.
Return of white rule to the south. Southerners adopted separate welfare institutions for blacks and whites.
Social Welfare: Urban Problems
Recession of 1873-1878
– Labor Unions expanded- becoming militant by 1900. Job protection, battle against poverty. Like fraternal organizaitons- sponsored insurance and other economic security—foundations for expansion of employee benefits. Discriminated against immigrants, African Americans, and women
– Economic crisis od 1873, 1885, abd 1892—saw mass unemployment. Social welfare leaders believed that the labor market not relief was the solution the the problem
– Time of technological advancement and research within the science fields—social welfare looked to science for new approach to poverty
Charity Organization Movement
-view of the poor as slothful, mendacious, and treacherous
-scientific approach to poverty and pauperism. Strongest survived therefore supporting relief that supported dependency led to weakening of mankind.
– scientific charity—individual is the problem. Examples of poverty to power appeared to fuel belief
– overall purpose of societies- was the maintenance of the virtuous family. Eligibility for relief- due to the virtue of the breadwinner. Poverty resulted from drinking or desertion, child may be removed from the home to go to more wholesome family. Self help the true cure for poverty (friendly visitors- learn lessons of thrift and efficiency)